1. What data is stored, and where is it stored?
    • 16S metagenomic data is not retained after the operational taxonomic units have been identified. Additionally, 16S sequence data only provides information around each organisms 16S gene, not the entire genome. The output files are stored (if requested) for future analysis in a 16S metagenomic analysis.
  2. What is the turnaround time?
    • Data for 16S metagenomics involves significant DNA extraction, sequencing and intensive data processing. Typical turnaround times are between 7-10 business days.
  3. How is 16S metagenomics different than Whole genome sequencing?
    • 16S metagenomics is a ‘targeted’ sequencing analysis. Before adding samples to a MiSeq, the 16S gene of every organism is amplified. The amplification products are then added to the MiSeq. WGS does an analysis of all DNA in an isolate.
  4. What size sample should be sent in?
    • We have recommendations on product and environmental samples. Sample size can depend on homogeneity of the sample type, the location of the product (work in progress, raw material, shelf life, etc.)
  5. How does a company start with 16S metagenomics?
    • A quick conference call with a representative from Neogen will help a company understand key elements to experimental design. Afterwards a company can download the sample submission form, and follow the sampling guidelines provided by Neogen. After samples are shipped, a report will be sent 7-10 business days after receipt of the samples.
  6. Does Neogen offer recommendations and interpretations for metagenomic results?
    • Neogen can help most companies interpret the 16S metagenomic results. Often with difficult interpretations PhD scientists are available for more complex situations.
  7. Are yeasts and molds covered in the 16S metagenomics?
    • No, yeast and molds are eukaryotes. Yeasts and molds do not carry a 16S gene. They have a different conserved gene called 18s. The 16S gene products done in this service cannot be used for 18s identification.
  8. Are pathogenic bacteria part of the microbial profile?
    • No, Listeria species and Salmonella species are not reported in the spoilage 16S metagenomics reports. If a specific study requires these bacteria to be identified, the service can report these organisms if requested. E. coli is identified, but only at the species level (i.e. generic E. coli).